R&D Tax Incentive – Constructive Payments

R&D Tax Incentive - Constructive Payments

What is a constructive payment?

A constructive payment is when a business can count an expense for tax purposes as soon as they agree to pay it, not just when they actually pay the money out.

What about for R&D?

In the realm of R&D tax claims, a constructive payment means a business can claim a tax benefit for an expense as soon as they commit to it, even if they haven’t paid the bill yet.

What does the ATO say about constructive payments to associates?

The ATO state (1, 2):

“Paying an amount to an associate can include making a constructive payment, where you apply or deal with the amount on their behalf or as they direct.”

Wait ?!? What?

So it is allowed? Nup.

Even though the ATO website indicates this, it is still ineligible.

The ATO has clarified this on a few occasions.

So what does it really mean?

Costs must be actually incurred and, in the case of dealing with associates, typically must also be paid in the year the claim is made to be eligible for the R&D incentive.


Confused about Constructive Payments?

Don’t navigate the maze alone.

Click here to book a one-on-one consultation with us

and set your R&D tax journey on the right course.

R&D Tax Incentive



Why is there confusion?

The confusion around constructive payments and the R&D tax incentive likely arises from the difference between general accounting practices and the specific requirements of the R&D tax incentive program as governed by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO).

In general business accounting, a constructive payment allows for the recognition of an expense when the obligation to pay is established.

However, for the R&D tax incentive, the ATO requires actual payment of the expenses, particularly when transactions involve associates, to ensure that only real and substantiated outlays are claimed.

This distinction is crucial and may not be immediately apparent to those more familiar with general accounting principles than the specific rules of the R&D tax incentive.


Why are the laws different for associates?

The laws surrounding constructive payments within Australia’s R&D Tax Incentive scheme have been carefully designed to prevent fraudulent behaviours, like artificially inflating R&D claims and participating in ’round-tripping’ of funds.


Preventing Artificial Inflation of Claims

The timing of contracts and payments is crucial when it comes to claiming the R&D Tax Incentive. Without clear legislative guidelines, companies could potentially adjust the timing of these factors to manipulate their eligible R&D expenditure within a given income year.

For instance, a business could hypothetically commit to a large R&D contract at the end of an income year and then delay actual payment until the next year. In doing so, they could claim a higher R&D expenditure in the earlier year than was actually spent.

The rules around constructive payments counter this possibility. They state that an R&D entity is taken to have ‘paid’ an amount when it applies or deals with the amount in any way on the associate’s behalf, or as the associate directs. By aligning the timing of the contractual commitment with the ‘payment’ (i.e., the use or commitment of the funds), the legislation prevents businesses from manipulating their claims through strategic timing.


Preventing ‘Round-Tripping’ of Funds

‘Round-tripping’ is another potential fraudulent practice that the constructive payments legislation helps prevent. In this scenario, a company might make a payment to an associated entity for alleged R&D services. The associated entity then returns the funds to the original company, which subsequently claims the R&D tax incentive on this expenditure, even if no actual R&D activity has taken place.

The legislation surrounding payments to associates tackles this issue by ensuring that the funds are genuinely used for R&D purposes. For an R&D entity to claim the expenditure, they must have ‘paid’ the associate (i.e., applied or dealt with the funds on their behalf) within the income year in which they are claiming the expenditure. Furthermore, the associate is expected to conduct eligible R&D activities on behalf of the entity, which should be appropriately registered and documented.

These rules collectively help ensure the integrity of the R&D Tax Incentive scheme and protect it from misuse. They safeguard the public purse and ensure that the program continues to support genuine innovation and growth within Australian industries.


What about constructive payments to associates who paid a third party for R&D?

In the realm of R&D tax legislation, understanding the dynamics of constructive payments – particularly those made to associate entities – is key to ensuring compliance and maximising your potential benefits. Constructive payments refer to situations where a commitment to an expense is deemed as an incurred expenditure, even if an actual cash payment hasn’t been made yet.

When an associate entity is involved, this principle evolves. If your R&D entity incurs an expenditure due to an agreement with an associate entity that makes a payment to a third party for R&D services, to qualify for the R&D tax incentive in the same income year, the R&D entity must physically pay the associate entity within that year. The commitment to pay, or a two-way loan agreement without actual payment within the income year, wouldn’t suffice for the expenditure to be eligible.


What about a two way loan agreement for constructive payments?

A loan agreement between an R&D entity and an associate can exist, but it does not negate the requirements of the R&D tax incentive legislation. In terms of claiming R&D tax incentive for expenditures involving associates, it’s important to remember that the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) has specific rules regarding the timing of payments.

Even if an R&D entity incurs an expenditure due to a loan agreement with an associated entity, the rules clearly state that to claim the R&D tax incentive in the same income year, the entity must have actually paid the associate within that year. This means the expenditure is not considered ‘incurred’ until the physical payment has been made to the associate, regardless of the existence of a loan agreement.

The presence of a loan agreement does not change the requirement of actual payment for eligibility under the R&D tax incentive rules. If the associate is paid in a later income year, specific rules apply, and this can affect the timing and eligibility of the R&D tax deduction.

These rules are in place to prevent potential manipulations such as inflating eligible R&D expenditure or ’round-tripping’ of funds, where a company makes a payment to an associated entity, which then returns the funds to the original company, and the company claims the R&D tax incentive on this expenditure, even though no actual R&D has occurred.

Given the complexity of these matters, it’s always advisable to consult with a tax professional or an experienced R&D tax incentive consultant when dealing with payments to associates, especially in scenarios involving loan agreements.


Concerned About ATO Audits?

Don’t risk hefty penalties!

Secure your peace of mind by ringing us now on 1300 658 508.

Your financial security could depend on it.

R&D Tax Incentive


Worked Examples

Here are three hypothetical scenarios involving an R&D entity, an associate, and varying payment timelines:

Eligible Scenario

Company A (R&D entity) enters into a contract with Company B (associate) in the 2023 income year for R&D services, which are carried out by a third-party contractor. Company B pays the third-party contractor for the services in the 2023 income year, and Company A pays Company B within the same 2023 income year. In this case, the expenditure is eligible for the R&D tax incentive in the 2023 income year as the actual payment to the associate (Company B) was made within the same income year that the expenditure was incurred.

Ineligible Scenario

Using the same setup as above, but Company A doesn’t pay Company B until the 2024 income year. In this case, the expenditure would not be eligible for the R&D tax incentive in the 2023 income year as the actual payment to the associate (Company B) was not made within the same income year that the expenditure was incurred

Ineligible Scenario with Two-Way Loan Agreement

In the 2023 income year, Company A enters into a two-way loan agreement with Company B, who pays a third-party contractor for R&D services. Although Company B pays the third-party in the 2023 income year, Company A does not make any actual payments to Company B in that year but instead records it as a loan in their books. Despite the two-way loan agreement, this would not be eligible for the R&D tax incentive for the 2023 income year. The legislation specifically requires actual payment to an associate within the same income year the expenditure is incurred, not just a commitment to pay or a loan agreement.

Please note that the above scenarios are simplified examples. The real-world applications of these rules can be complex and vary widely depending on the specific details of each situation. As such, it’s crucial to consult with a tax professional or an R&D tax incentive consultant to ensure you’re meeting all eligibility requirements and are claiming the correct amounts.


Navigating the Complexities of Constructive Payments: Your Next Step

Understanding the intricacies of the R&D tax incentive legislation, including the rules around constructive payments, can be a daunting task. This is where Bulletpoint steps in. As experts in the field, we have a decade of experience guiding businesses through this complex process, ensuring they capitalise on the benefits they are entitled to under the Australian government’s R&D tax incentive scheme.

With Bulletpoint, you’ll have access to a team of seasoned professionals, equipped with the knowledge and resources to help you:

  • Understand the intricacies of the R&D tax incentive legislation, specifically the rules around constructive payments to associates.
  • Comply with the relevant tax laws while optimising your R&D tax claims.
  • Transform the usually stressful R&D tax incentive application process into a more manageable, and even enjoyable, experience.

Don’t let the complexity of the R&D tax incentive process hinder your business’s growth. Instead, let Bullepoint guide you through it. We’ve successfully lodged over 500 R&D claims and are proud to be led by Australia’s highest-rated R&D tax consultant.

With an average rating of 4.8 stars from over 250 Google reviews, our commitment to delivering accessible expertise and maintaining a personable approach is evident.

Ready to take the next step? Contact us today and discover how we can assist you in maximising your R&D tax incentives while ensuring full compliance with the legislation. At Bulletpoint, we’re all about simplifying the complex, so you can focus on what you do best – innovating.


Constructive payments are expenses that are recognised when the commitment to pay is made. While these can sometimes be claimed for R&D tax incentives, they are not eligible when dealing with associate payments.

No, the ATO requires actual payments to associates, not just the commitment to pay, for these expenses to be eligible for the R&D tax incentive.

The ATO mandates that any R&D expenses paid to associates must be physically paid out, not just recorded as a liability, to qualify for tax incentives.

Yes, the payment to associates must be made within the same financial year that you intend to claim the R&D tax incentive.

If the payment to your associate isn’t made by the end of the financial year, it can’t be claimed until the year in which it is actually paid.

Bulletpoint can provide expert advice to ensure that your R&D tax claims for payments to associates meet the ATO’s requirements. Contact us to ensure your claims are compliant and maximise your R&D tax incentive benefits.

Myths and Misconceptions

Fact: Constructive payments can be claimed for R&D tax incentives, but not when the payments are to associates; those require actual cash transactions.

Fact: Even if an expense to an associate is incurred in a financial year, it’s not eligible for the R&D tax incentive until it is actually paid.

Fact: The ATO differentiates between associates and third parties, disallowing constructive payments for associates when claiming R&D tax incentives.

Fact: For associates, the ATO insists on actual payment, not just recording the obligation, to qualify for the R&D tax incentive.

Fact: The ATO is quite clear that only actual payments made to associates will count for R&D tax incentive claims, not constructive payments.

What is the #1 grant for start-ups?

12,000+ companies access the R&D tax incentive per year that yields a CASH REBATE of up to 43.5%.
This might be perfect your start up.
Do you want to know more?

Scroll to Top
R&D Top 10 Consultant Tips

Top 10 Consultant Tips to Maximise the R&D Tax Incentive